The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) is attempting for the first time, with the support of Gujarat’s forest department, to rehabilitate coral reefs using mineral accretion technology or bio rock technology.

It’s also known as ‘Biorock Technology,’ and it’s a technique that involves passing safe, low-voltage electrical currents through seawater, causing dissolved minerals to crystallise on structures and grow into white limestone (CaCo3), similar to that found in coral reefs and tropical white-sand beaches.

The substance generated by electro-accumulation of minerals dissolved in saltwater is known as bio rock, also known as Seacrete or Seament.

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Biorock Technology UPSC

The produced substance has a concrete-like strength. It can be used to create strong artificial reefs that develop corals at a quick rate.

#Broken coral fragments are anchored to the bio rock structure, allowing them to develop at least four to six times quicker than their natural rate because they are not required to create their calcium carbonate skeletons.

#The technique also aids corals, particularly the very sensitive branching corals, in fending off global warming’s hazards.

Biorock or Mineral Accretion Technology

Windmills, photovoltaic solar panels, and tidal current generators are examples of renewable energy sources that can be used to power bio rock projects. This allows them to be built in regions where there is no access to traditional electricity.

Architect Wolf Hilbertz first created the mineral accretion process in 1976 to supply alternative construction materials. Later, he and Tom Goreau of the Global Coral Reef Alliance refined its application for reef regeneration and coastline protection.

Working: UPSC Preparation Notes

#A little quantity of electrical current is passed through electrodes in the water to power the gadget.

#Calcium ions interact with carbonate ions and stick to the structure when a negatively charged cathode and a positively charged anode are put on the seabed with an electric current flowing between them (cathode). Calcium carbonate is formed as a result of this (CaCo3).

#Coral larvae cling to the CaCO3 and swiftly expand.

What is Biorock?

A tiny electric current is carried between underwater metal electrodes immersed in saltwater, forcing dissolved minerals to accrete onto the cathode, forming a thick coating of limestone.

On January 19, 2020, a bio rock structure was built one nautical mile off the Mithapur shore in the Gulf of Kachchh. In this example, the scientists employed solar panels to generate electricity.

The calcification (conversion to calcium carbonate) process has begun, but true success will only be realised once attached and new creatures (corals) begin to grow at a quicker rate.

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UPSC Exam Preparation Notes

About Coral Reefs: Polyps, which are genetically similar creatures, make up corals. #Microscopic algae called zooxanthellae live within the tissues of these polyps.

#A mutualistic link exists between corals and algae.

#The coral gives the chemicals required for photosynthesis to the zooxanthellae.

#In exchange, the zooxanthellae provide the coral with organic photosynthesis products such as carbohydrates, which the coral polyps use to make their calcium carbonate skeletons.

#Corals’ distinctive and gorgeous colours are also due to zooxanthellae.

#The aforementioned relationship permits shallow-water corals to develop quickly enough to form the massive structures known as reefs.

#Coral reefs, also known as “sea rainforests,” are home to a diverse range of creatures.

India’s Four Major Coral Reef Areas

Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Gulf of Kachchh and the Gulf of Mannar. Climate change-induced acidification, as well as man-made issues such as overfishing and pollution, are threatening coral reefs.


Hopefully, this article has given you the most up-to-date bio rock technology knowledge. Because of recent issues, it is crucial for UPSC aspirants. You should read the article summary so that you are up to date on technology and science and can answer questions correctly on the UPSC exam.

To learn more about other UPSC notes and news in India, as well as technical matters, go to the UPSC Pathshala website. On the Internet, you can seek advice on the examination from experts and professionals.

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