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Geneva Convention Origin
Since the past, rules of war varied from civilization to civilization, like the Babylonians were exemplary in their conduct whereas the Roman Empire and also the Mongols didn’t shrink back from decreasing whole cities or their entire populations to ash. This was the norm when Durant Henry arrived on the scene.
Henry Durant was a businessperson from Geneva who wanted an audience with Napoleon II, a kinsman of Napoleon Emperor, relating to the acquisition of land for a business venture. He did get land in the northern Italian Republic however he conjointly bore witness to the aftermath of the bloody Battle of Solferino, one in all several fought throughout the Unification of the Italian Republic.
This prompted him to jot down an account of what he had witnessed whereas proposing an answer to mitigate a number of the violence of war – the training of a volunteer group that might offer help to those plagued by war, civilian and soldier alike.
So an early sort of the red cross was shaped to explore Durant’s suggestion. In October 1863, delegates from sixteen nations came to Geneva and mentioned the terms of humanitarian treatment throughout the war. The result was a written agreement signed by twelve nations and became referred to as the primary convention.
Geneva Convention UPSC
Another convention was drawn up by the Swiss government to review and build any enhancements to the primary convention. The amendments made in the Geneva convention included protection for wounded or captured prisoners of war along with the prevention for the medical personnel treating, evacuating, and removing the dead and wounded.
Following the end of the war, I in 1919 determined that the amendments created in 1906 weren’t enough for humanitarian conduct in times of war and more updates were created in 1929 to confirm a civilized treatment to the prisoners of war.
The new amendments introduced rules regarding the daily lives of prisoners and led to the establishment of the red cross as the main neutral organization which is able to ensure the collection and transmission of knowledge relating to the death and wounding of combatants. Moreover, further amendments were made in the convention in 1949.
According to the amendments, no male or female should be tortured and when they are captured, they are only required to give the necessary details including name, rank, birth date, and serial number. Also, they will not be discriminated against and should be offered adequate food, they can respond to their families, and the Red Cross will examine their sustainability conditions whenever they want.
The protocols of the Geneva convention UPSC are given below. Go through them for your UPSC preparation.
In 1977, Protocols I and II were superimposed to the Conventions of 1949. Protocol I inflated protections for civilians, military workers, and journalists throughout international armed conflicts. It is also illegal the utilization of “weapons that cause superfluous injury or uncalled-for suffering,” or cause “widespread, long-run and severe harm to the natural setting.”
According to the International Committee of the Red Cross, Protocol II was established as a result of most victims of armed conflicts since the 1949 Convention were victims of vicious civil wars.
In addition, youngsters ought to be cared for and educated, and also the following is prohibited:
#. Taking hostages
#. Group penalization
#. Humiliating or degrading treatment
Over a hundred ninety states follow the Geneva Conventions due to the idea that some battleground behaviours are so heinous and damaging, they damage the complete international community. The principles facilitate drawing a line—as is feasible at intervals in the context of wars and armed conflicts—between the humane treatment of soldiers, medical employees, and civilians and unrestrained brutality against them.
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