The UPSC civil services exam 2022 will take place on June 5, 2022, and the exam notification will be released in February of that year. The UPSC civil services main examinations for 2022 are set to begin on September 16.

The optional papers’ syllabus is at the honours degree level, which is higher than a bachelor’s degree but lower than a master’s degree. Literature subjects are also available as an elective for candidates. The optional you choose can have a significant impact on your chances of success in UPSC 2021.

We have compiled the UPSC Syllabus for Civil Services Mains Optional Subjects in this article to assist you in deciding on your Optional Subject for the IAS exam.

UPSC Optional Syllabus 2022

The UPSC Main Examination has two qualifying papers and seven merit ranking papers, as follows:


#Any one Indian language from the eighth schedule of the constitution of India

Merit Ranking Papers

#UPSC Essay

#General Studies Paper I

#General Studies Paper II

#General Studies Paper III

#General Studies Paper IV

#Optional Paper I

#Optional Paper II

Also Read: Best Optional Subjects in UPSC: Guide to Choose the Most Scoring Non-technical Subjects

Sociology Optional Syllabus 2022

Sociology – The Discipline

Social changes and modernity in Europe and the emergence of sociology.

Comparison with other social sciences and scope of the subject.

Sociology and common sense.

Sociology as Science

Science, scientific method and critique.

Major theoretical strands of research methodology.

Positivism and its critique.

Fact value and objectivity.

Non- positivist methodologies.

Research Methods and Analysis

Qualitative and quantitative methods.

Techniques of data collection.

Variables, hypothesis, sampling, reliability and validity.

Sociological Thinkers

Karl Marx- Historical materialism, alienation, mode of production, class struggle.

Emile Durkheim- Division of suicide, religion, labour, social fact, and society.

Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, protestant ethic, authority, bureaucracy, and the spirit of capitalism.

Talcott Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.

Robert K. Merton- Latent and conformity and deviance, manifest functions, reference groups.

Mead – Self and identity.

Stratification and Mobility

Concepts- hierarchy, equality, exclusion, inequality, poverty and deprivation.

Theories of social stratification- Marxist theory, Structural functionalist theory, Weberian theory.

Dimensions – Social stratification of class, gender, ethnicity, status groups and race.

Social mobility- types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility, open and closed systems.

Works and Economic Life

Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, capitalist/ industrial society.

Formal and informal organization of work.

Labour and society.

Politics and Society

Sociological theories of power.

The power elite, political parties, bureaucracy and pressure groups

Nation, civil society, state, democracy, citizenship, ideology.

Protest, collective action, agitation, social movements, revolution.

Religion and Society

Sociological theories of religion.

Types of religious practices: pluralism, animism, sects, monism, cults.

Religion in modern society: religious revivalism, secularization, religion and science, fundamentalism.

Also Read: Best Economics Books for UPSC Exams: Check Out the List of Books to Ace UPSC

Systems of Kinship

Family, household, marriage.

Types and forms of family.

Lineage and descent.

Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.

Contemporary trends.

Social Change in Modern Society

Sociological theories of social change.

Development and dependency.

Agents of social change.

Education and social change.

Science, technology and social change.

Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society

Indology (GS. Ghurye).

Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).

Marxist sociology (A R Desai).

Impact of Colonial Rule on Indian Society

The social background of Indian nationalism.

Modernization of Indian tradition.

Protests and movements during the colonial period.

Social reforms.

Rural and Agrarian Social Structure

The impression of village studies and Indian village.

Agrarian social structure – the evolution of land reforms and land tenure system.

Caste System

Perspectives on the study of caste systems: Louis Dumont, GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Andre Beteille.

Features of the caste system.

Untouchability – forms and perspectives.

Tribal Communities in India

Definitional problems.

Geographical spread.

Colonial policies and tribes.

Issues of integration and autonomy.

Social Classes in India

Agrarian class structure.

Industrial class structure.

Middle classes in India.

Systems of Kinship in India

Lineage and descent in India.

Types of kinship systems.

Family and marriage in India.

Household dimensions of the family.

Religion and Society

Religious communities in India.

Problems of religious minorities.

Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour

Visions of Social Change in India

The idea of development planning and mixed economy.

Constitution, law and social change.

Education and social change.

Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India

Programmes of rural development, poverty alleviation schemes, cooperatives, Community Development Programme.

Green revolution and social change.

Changing procedures of production in Indian agriculture.

Problems of bondage, rural labour, migration.

Industrialization and Urbanisation in India

Evolution of modern industry in India.

Growth of urban settlements in India.

Working-class: growth, structure, class mobilization.

The informal sector, child labour.

Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

Politics and Society

Nation, democracy and citizenship.

Political parties, social, pressure groups and political elite.

Regionalism and decentralization of power.


Social Movements in Modern India

Peasants and farmers movements.

Women’s movement.

Backward classes & Dalit movement.

Environmental movements.

Ethnicity and Identity movements.

Population Dynamics

Population size, growth, composition and distribution.

Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.

Population policy and family planning.

Emerging issues: child and infant mortality, ageing, sex ratios, reproductive health.

Challenges of Social Transformation

Crisis of development: environmental problems, displacement, and sustainability.

Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.

Violence against women.

Caste conflicts.

Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.

Illiteracy and disparities in education.

Also Read: UPSC Sociology Optional Question Paper: How to Prepare for UPSC 2021-22 Sociology Paper?

UPSC Law Optional Syllabus 2022

Constitutional and Administrative Law

The distinct features of the Constitution: Constitutionalism and Constitution

Fundamental Rights -Legal Aid; Public interest litigation; Legal services authority.

Relationship between Directive Principles, Fundamental duties, and Fundamental Rights.

Relation with the Council of Ministers and constitutional Position of the President.

Governor and his powers.

Supreme Court and the High Courts

Appointments and transfers.

Powers, functions and jurisdiction.

Centre, States and local bodies:

Distribution of legislative powers between the States, Local, and the Union Bodies.

Administrative relationship among Local, State, Union Bodies.

Eminent domain-State property-common property-community property.

Legislative powers. Privileges and immunities.

Services under the Union and the States

Recruitment and conditions of services; Constitutional safeguards; Administrative


Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions-

And functions.  -Power Election Commission-Power and functions

Emergency provisions.

Amendment of the Constitution.

Principle of Natural Justice-Emerging trends and judicial approach.

Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.

Separation of powers and constitutional governance.

Judicial review of administrative action.

Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.

International Law

Nature and Definition of International Law.

Relationship between International Law and Municipal Law

State Recognition and State Succession.

Law of the sea: Contiguous Zone, Inland Waters, Territorial Sea, Continental Shelf,


Economic Zone and High Seas.

Individuals: Nationality, Human Rights. statelessness; and procedures available for their enforcement.

The territorial jurisdiction of States, Extradition and Asylum.

Treaties: Formation, application, termination and reservation.

United Nations: Its principal powers, organs, and functions and reform.

Peaceful settlement of disputes -different modes.

Lawful Recourse to Force

Aggression, self-defence, intervention.

International conventions and contemporary developments-Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law.

The legality of the use of nuclear weapons; Nuclear non-proliferation treaty, a ban on the testing of nuclear weapons; CTST.

International Terrorism, State-sponsored terrorism, Hijacking,

International Criminal Court.

New International Monetary Law and Economic Order: IMF, GATT, WTO, TRIPS, World Bank.

Improvement and Protection of the Human Environment: International Efforts.

Also Read: Fixed Term Employment in India: UPSC Notes on New Policies for Labour Laws in India

UPSC Anthropology Optional Syllabus 2022

Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization

Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Neolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization).

Pre-Harappan, Harappan and post-Harappan cultures. Contributions of the tribal

cultures to Indian civilization.

Palaeo-Anthropological evidence from India with special reference to Narmada basin and Siwaliks (Sivapithecus, Narmada Man and Ramapithecus).

Ethno-Archaeology in India

The concept of ethnoarchaeology; Survivals and

Parallels among the fishing, hunting, foraging, pastoral and peasant communities

including arts and crafts producing communities.

Demographic Profile of India

Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian

population and their distribution. Indian population–factors influencing its

structure and growth.

The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system-Varnashrama,

Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.

Caste system in India- Structure and characteristics Varna and caste, Dominant caste, Future of caste system, Theories of origin of the caste system, Caste mobility, Jajmani system. Tribe-caste continuum.

Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.

Emergence, growth and development in India-Contributions of the 18th, 19th and

early 20th Century scholar-administrators.

Contributions of Indian anthropologists to caste and tribal studies.

Indian Village

Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Significance of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages. Religious and linguistic minorities and their political, social, and economic status

Indigenous and Exogenous Processes of Socio-Cultural Change in Indian Society

Westernization, Sanskritization, Modernization; Media and Social change: Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati Raj and social change; Tribal situation in India-Bio-genetic linguistic, variability and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.

Problems of the tribal Communities–Land alienation, indebtedness, poverty, Door educational facilities, low literacy, under-employment, unemployment, health and nutrition.

Developmental projects, problems of rehabilitation and their impact on tribal displacement. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and industrialization of tribal populations.

Problems of deprivation and exploitation of Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes, and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

Social Change and Contemporary Tribal Societies

Impact of modern development programmes, democratic institutions, and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.

The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism. Social change among the tribes during post-independent and colonial India.

Impact of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.

Tribe and nation state-a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.

History of administration of plans, tribal areas, tribal policies, programmes of tribal development and their implementation.

The concept of their distribution, special programmes for their development, PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups). Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.

Role of anthropology in rural and tribal development.

Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of political, regionalism, communalism and ethnic movements.

Also Read: Is Anthropology a Good Option for UPSC? Have a Look at to Know Everything about the CSE Optional Subject

UPSC Geography Optional Syllabus 2022

Physical Geography

Geomorphology: Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Plate tectonics; Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Continental drift; Isostasy; Recent views on mountain building; Geosynclines; Volcanicity; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development; Denudation chronology; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Applied Geomorphology; Slope development; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.

Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Types and distribution of precipitation; Hydrological cycle; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and ‘Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes

Applied climatology and Urban climate.

Also Read: Which Geography NCERT for UPSC? Here is the List of Books You Should Prefer for UPSC Preparation

Oceanography: mineral and energy resources; Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Marine resources; Heat and salt budgets, currents and tides; Waves, biotic, Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes;

Ocean deposits; Law of the sea and marine pollution.

Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals;

Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Degradation and conservation; Social forestry, agroforestry; Wildlife; Major gene pool centres.

Environmental Geography: Influence of man on ecology and environment; Principle ecology; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Human ecological adaptations

Ecosystems: Environmental hazards and remedial measures; their management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Environmental policy; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography

Perspectives in Human Geography: Dichotomy and dualism; Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Cultural regions of the world; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Languages, religions and secularisation; Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches;

Human development index.

Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: a typology of agricultural regions; World resources and their distribution; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems;

Food and nutrition problems; Patterns of world trade.

Population and Settlement Geography: Social well-being and quality of life; Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of over-

under-and optimum population; Growth and distribution of world population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Population as social capital.

Also Read: What are Endogenic and Exogenic Forces? UPSC Geography Exam Notes for 2021-22

Urban morphology; Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Concept of primate city and rank-size rule; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Functional classification of towns; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Sustainable development of cities.

Regional Planning: Regional development strategies; Concept of a region; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Weber’s model of industrial location; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; System analysis in Human geography; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth.

Laws of international boundaries and frontiers; Heart-land and Rimland theories.

UPSC Hindi Optional Syllabus 2022

History of Hindi Language and Nagari Lipi

Grammatical and applied forms of Arambhik Hindi, Apbhransh and Awahatta.

Development of Awadhi and Braj as Literary language during the medieval period.

Early form of Khari-boli in Sant Sahitya, Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusero, Rahim, etc. and Dakhni Hindi.

Development of Nagari Lipi and Khari-boli during the 19th Century.

Standardisation of Nagari Lipi and Hindi Bhasha.

Development of Hindi as a National Language during the independence movement.

Union of India during the development of Hindi as a National Language.

Scientific & Technical Development of Hindi Language.

Prominent dialects of Hindi and their interrelationship.

The standard form of Hindi and Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform.

The grammatical structure of Standard Hindi.

History of Hindi Literature

The relevance and importance of the tradition of writing and Hindi literature.

History of Hindi Literature.

Literary trends of the following four periods of the history of Hindi Literature.

Adikal-Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya.

Prominent poets- Hemchandra, Chandravardai, Khusaro, Vidyapati

Bhaktikal- Sufi Kavyadhara, Sant Kavya Dhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram Bhaktidhara.

Prominent Poets -Kabir, Tulsi, Jayasi and Sur

Ritikal- Riti Badh Kavya, Riti Kavya and Riti Mukta Kavya. Prominent Poets-Keshav, Ghananand.

Adhunik Kal, Bihari and Padmakar

Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bal Krishna Bhatt, Bharatendu Mandal.

Prominent Writers-Bharatendu and Pratap Narain Mishra.

Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry: Nai Kavita, Chhayavad, Pragativad, Navgeet, Prayogvad, and Contemporary poetry and Janvadi Kavita.

Prominent Poets

Mahadevi, Maithili Sharan Gupta, Muktibodh, Prasad, Nirala, Dinkar, Agyeya,Nagarjun. Katha Sahitya Upanyas & Realism

The origin and development of Hindi Novels.

Prominent Novelists- Yashpal, Premchand, Renu, Jain-endra and Bhism Sahani.

The origin and development of Hindi short stories.

Prominent Short Story Writers- Agyeya, Premchand, Krishna Sobti, Prasad, and Mohan Rakesh.

Drama & Theatre

The Origin & Development of Hindi Drama.

Prominent Dramatists- Bharatendu, Prasad, Ram Kumar Verma, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Mohan Rakesh.

The development of Hindi Theatre.


The origin and development of Hindi criticism: Pragativadi, Saidhantik, Vyavharik. Manovishleshanvadi and Nai Alochana.

Prominent critics-Ramchandra Shukla, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma & Nagendra.

The other forms of Hindi prose-Lalit Nibandh, Yatra-vrittant, Rekhachitra, Sansmaran.

Also Read: UPSC Hindi Medium Topper List: 3 Must-Read Tips to Crack UPSC Hindi Medium

UPSC Political Science Optional Syllabus 2022

Political Theory and Indian Politics

Political Theory: meaning and approaches.

Theories of state: Marxist, Liberal, Neo-liberal, Pluralist, Post-colonial and Feminist.

Justice: Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.

Equality: Affirmative action; Social, economic and political; the relationship between equality and freedom.

Rights: Meaning and theories; Concept of Human Rights; different kinds of rights.

Democracy: different models of democracy representative, Classical and contemporary theories; participatory and deliberative.

Concept of power: hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.

Political Ideologies: Marxism, Liberalism, Fascism, Socialism, Gandhism and Feminism.

Indian Political Thought: Arthashastra, Dharamshastra, and Buddhist Traditions; B. R. Ambedkar, Sri Aurobindo, M. K. Gandhi, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, M. N. Roy.

Western Political Thought: Hobbes, Hannah Arendt. Indian Government, Plato, Machiavelli, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Aristotle, Gramsci and Politics

Indian Nationalism

Political Strategies of India’s Freedom Struggle: Civil Disobedience; Constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Noncooperation, Militant and Revolutionary Movements. Peasant and Workers Movements.

Perspectives on Indian National Movement; Marxist; Liberal, Socialist and Radical Humanist and Dalit.

Making of the Indian Constitution: different social; Legacies of the British rule and political perspectives.

Salient Features of the Indian Constitution: Directive Principles; The Preamble, Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Fundamental Rights and Duties, Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.

Principal Organs of the Union Government: Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.

Principal Organs of the State Government: Legislature and High Courts.

Grassroots Democracy: Significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; Grassroot movements.


Statutory Institutions/ Commissions: National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, Election Commission, National Commission for Women; Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Minorities, Comptroller and Auditor General, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Backward Classes Commission.

Federalism: Constitutional provisions; integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; changing nature of centre-state relations; inter-state disputes.

Planning and Economic Development: Role of planning and public sector; Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; land reforms and agrarian relations; Green Revolution, liberalization and economic reforms.

Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.

Party System: Patterns of coalition politics; trends in electoral behaviour; National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; Pressure groups, changing socio-economic profile of Legislators.

Social Movement: Civil liberties and human rights movements; environmentalist movements; women’s movements.

UPSC Public Administration Syllabus 2022

Introduction: Wilson’s vision of Public Administration, Good Governance: concept and application; Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration, Evolution of the discipline and its present status. Public Choice approach; Challenges of liberalization, New Public Administration, Privatisation, Globalisation; New Public Management.

Administrative Thought

Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement; Classical Theory: Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard); Weber’s bureaucratic model, its critique and post-Weberian Developments; Simon’s decision-making theory; Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett); Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others); Participative Management (R. Likert, C. Argyris, D. McGregor.)

Administrative Behaviour

Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories content, Traditional and Modem: process and contemporary; Theories of Leadership: Organisations: Theories systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Ministries and Departments, Companies; Boards and Commissions; Ad hoc, Corporations, and advisory bodies; Regulatory Authorities; Headquarters and Field relationships; Public-Private Partnerships.

Accountability and Control

Meaning, scope and significance; Concepts of accountability and control; Citizen and Administration; Legislative, Executive and judicial control over administration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary organizations; Civil society; Citizen’s Charters; Right to Information: Social audit. Administrative Law: Delegated legislation; Dicey on Administrative law; Administrative Tribunals.

Also Read: Public Administration Syllabus for UPSC: Check Out the Updated Syllabus and Ways to Succeed

Comparative Public Administration

Administration and politics in different countries; Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Ecology and administration; Current status of Comparative Public Administration; Riggsian models and their critique.

Development Dynamics: Concept of development; Changing profile of development administration; ‘Anti-development thesis; Bureaucracy and development; Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries; Strong state versus the market debate; Women and development of the self-help group movement.

Personnel Administration

Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, position classification, career advancement, discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, employer-employee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; pray and service conditions; Code of conduct: Administrative ethics.

Public Policy: Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualisation, monitoring, implementation, planning, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.

Techniques of Administrative Improvement

Organisation and methods, e-governance and information technology; Work study and work management; Management aid tools like network analysis, PERT, MIS, CPM.

Financial Administration Monetary and fiscal policies: Financial accountability; Budgetary process; Public borrowings and public debt Budgets types and forms; Accounts and audit.

UPSC Hindi Optional Syllabus 2022

Grammatical and applied forms of Awahatta, Apbhransh and Arambhik Hindi.

Development of Braj and Awadhi as literary language during the medieval period.

Early form of Khari-boli in Khusero, Sant Sahitya, Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Rahim etc. and Dakhni Hindi.

Development of Nagari Lipi and Khari-boli during the 19th Century.

Standardization of Nagari Lipi and Hindi Bhasha.

Development of Hindi as a national Language during the freedom movement.

The development of Hindi as a National Language of the Union of India.

Technical and Scientific development of Hindi Language.

Prominent dialects of Hindi and their interrelationship.

Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Standard form of Hindi.

The grammatical structure of Standard Hindi.

Section A

Kabir : Ed, Kabir Granthawali, Shyam Sundar Das (First hundred Sakhis.)

Surdas: Ed. Ramchandra Shukla, Bhramar Geet Sar, (First hundred Padas)

Tulsidas : Ramcharitmanas (Sundar Kand) Kavitavali (Uttar Kand).

Jayasi: Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Nagmativiyog Khand and Sinhal Dwip Khand)

Bihari : Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagannath Prasad Ratnakar (First 100 Dohas)

Maithili Sharan Gupta : Bharat Bharati

Prasad : Kamayani (Shraddha Sarg and Chinta)

Nirala : Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma, Rag-Virag, (Ram Ki Shakti Puja & Kukurmutta).

Dinkar : Kurushetra

Agyeya : Aangan Ke Paar Dwar (Asadhya Vina)

Muktibodh : Brahma Rakshas

Nagarjun : Akal Ke Bad, Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Harijan Gatha.

Section B

Bharatendu : Bharat Durdasha

Mohan Rakesh : Ashad Ka Ek Din

Ramchandra Shukla : Chintamani (Part I)

(Kavita Kya Hai] Shraddha Aur Bhakti)

Dr. Satyendra: Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Nibandh Nilaya-Bal Krishna Bhatt, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.

Premchand: Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai, Manjusha – Ed. Amrit Rai, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan

Prasad: Skandgupta

Yashpal: Divya

Phaniswar Nath Renu : Maila Anchal

Mannu Bhandari : Mahabhoj

Rajendra Yadav : Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)

UPSC Philosophy Optional Syllabus 2022

History and Problems of Philosophy

Plato and Aristotle: Form and Matter; Ideas; Substance; Causation; Actuality and


Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz); Substance; Cartesian Method and Certain Mind-Body Dualism; Knowledge; God; Determinism and Freedom.

Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Substance and Qualities; Theory of Knowledge; Self and God; Scepticism.

Kant: Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Space and Time; Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God.

Hegel: Dialectical Method; Russell and Early Wittgenstein, Absolute Idealism.Moore, : Defence of Common Sense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Picture Theory of Meaning; Incomplete Symbols; Saying and Showing.

History and Problems of Philosophy

Logical Positivism: Rejection of Metaphysics; Verification Theory of Meaning

Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.

Later Wittgenstein: Critique of Private Language; Meaning and Use; Language-games.

Phenomenology (Husserl); Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.

Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sarte, Heidegger): Choice,

Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Existence and Essence; Being-in-the-world and Temporality.

Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.

Carvaka: Saptabhanginaya; Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.

Jainism: Theory of Reality; Bondage and Liberation.

Schools of Buddhism: PratItyasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada.

Nyaya-Vaisesika: Theory of Appearance; Theory of Categories; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic

Theory of Creation.

Also Read: What is the Bhoodan Movement? History, Philosophy, Aim and Key Points for UPSC 2021

Yoga Knowledge

Samkhya; Prakrit; Purusa; Causation; Liberation.

Yoga; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Citta; Samadhi; Kaivalya.

Mimamsa: Theory of Knowledge.

Schools of Vedanta: Jagat; Brahman; Isvara; Jiva; Maya; Atman; Avida; Adhyasa;

Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda.

Aurobindo: Involution; Evolution, Integral Yoga.

UPSC Optional Syllabus 2022

Here are the optional subjects with the syllabus link.

Optional Subjects Literature Optional
History Syllabus Assamese
Geography Syllabus Bengali
Economy Syllabus Bodo
Sociology Syllabus Dongri
Public Administration Syllabus Gujarati
Philosophy Syllabus Hindi
Psychology Syllabus Kanada

Some More

Political Science Syllabus Kashmiri
Agriculture Syllabus Konkani
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus Maithili
Anthropology Syllabus Malayalam
Botany Syllabus Manipuri
Chemistry Syllabus Marathi
Civil Engineering Syllabus Nepali
Commerce Syllabus Oriya
Zoology Syllabus Punjabi

Some More

Electrical Engineering Syllabus Sanskriti
Geology Syllabus Santhali
Law Syllabus Sindhi
Mathematics Syllabus Tamil
Management Syllabus Telugu
Mechanical Engineering Syllabus Urdu
Medical Science Syllabus English
Physics Syllabus
Statistics Syllabus

This article will provide you with a thorough understanding of the UPSC Syllabus for Civil Service Exams. After you’ve learned the syllabus, you can begin preparing for the UPSC optional subject. Make sure you choose an optional subject only after you have a thorough understanding of it.

The UPSC Mains questions are of the descriptive type. UPSC Mains consists of nine papers, including two luggage papers, that a candidate must pass in order to qualify.

Now that you’ve learned everything there is to know about UPSC, you can move on to the next step. What is the first step you will take in your preparation?

Also Read: Sadaf Choudhary Biography: Meet a Person Who Secured AIR 23 by Studying at Home

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UPSC Optional Syllabus 2022: Know the Entire Syllabus with Important Topics to Prepare
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UPSC Optional Syllabus 2022: Know the Entire Syllabus with Important Topics to Prepare
Preparing for UPSC 2022? Then, you have come to the right place, know the syllabus properly with the important topics. Click here, to know your optional syllabus 2022.
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Amiksha Kantam

Amiksha is a budding Content Writer. A young writer who has written over 250 poems and quotes and also an author of a famous Wattpad novel named “Ma and the Magical Kingdom” and always sets her goals high with her determination like the sky. Her mother is her inspiration and her family is her biggest support. She has her interest in writing, reading novels and craft. She has developed her hardworking and disciplined persona from her mother. She is very out going and loves travelling, trekking and hiking. She believes in the quote “Creativity lies in actions not experience

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