Mission Shakti

Theme: Government policies and Interventions

Source: The Hindu

Why in news: The Supreme Court has sought more information from the Government about ‘Mission Shakti’, as it is concerned about chronic shortage in ‘protection officers’ to deal with domestic violence cases.

Mission Shakti

Key news highlights:

  • Appointment of protection officers is mandated under Section 8 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.

Protection officers have a pivotal role:

  • Help victims file complaints,
  • Give Information to the police,
  • Provide immediate protection and support,Inform victims about their legal rights and
  • Support them through the court proceedings.
  • With 4.4 lakh cases pending in 801 districts, a protection officer in each of these districts would be saddled with over 500 cases.
  • Even though Mission Shakti provided for the “one-stop centers” in most of these districts to receive victims, it is unclear how many of them employ protection officers to effectively help the traumatised survivors.
  • The government has also been asked about whether Mission Shakti will serve as an umbrella scheme for implementing the Domestic Violence Act.

About Mission Shakti:

  • The Government of India has launched ‘Mission Shakti’ – an integrated women empowerment programme for implementation during the 15th Finance Commission period 202l-22 to 2025-26.
  • It is a scheme in mission mode aimed at strengthening interventions for women safety, security and empowerment.
  • It seeks to realise the Government’s commitment for “women-led development‟ by addressing issues affecting women on a life-cycle continuum basis and by making them equal partners in nation-building through convergence and citizen-ownership.


  • ‘Mission Shakti’ has two sub-schemes – ‘Sambal’ and ‘Samarthya’.


  • The “Sambal” sub-scheme is for the safety and security of women.
  • The components of ‘Sambal’ sub-scheme consist of erstwhile schemes of One Stop Centre (OSC), Women Helpline (WHL), Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) with a new component of Nari Adalats – women’s collectives to promote and facilitate alternative dispute resolution and gender justice in society and within families.


  • The “Samarthya” sub-scheme is for empowerment of women.
  • The components of ‘Samarthya’ sub-scheme consist of erstwhile schemes of Ujjwala, Swadhar Greh and Working Women Hostel have been included with modifications.
  • In addition, the existing schemes of National Creche Scheme for children of working mothers and Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) under umbrella ICDS have now been included in Samarthya.

Static Part to be referred: Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005; Mission Shakti; Supreme Court

Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)

Theme: Space Technology; Science and

Source: The Indian Express

Why in news: ALMA is set to get software and hardware upgrades that will help it collect much more data and produce sharper images than ever before and the upgrade would take around 5 years to finish.

Atacama Large Millimeter Array

About Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)

  • ALMA is a state-of-the-art telescope, which is situated at an altitude of 16,570 feet (5,050 metres) above sea level on the Chajnantor plateau in Chile’s Atacama Desert .
  • The telescope consists of 66 high-precision antennas, spread over a distance of up to 16 km.
  • It studies celestial objects at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths- they can penetrate through dust clouds and help astronomers examine dim and distant galaxies and stars.
  • It also has extraordinary sensitivity, which allows it to detect even extremely faint radio signals.
  • It has been fully functional since 2013.
  • ALMA is operated under a partnership among the United States, 16 countries in Europe, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Chile.
  • The radio telescope was designed, planned and constructed by the
  • US’s National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO),
  • The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and
  • The European Southern Observatory (ESO).

Why is ALMA located in Chile’s Atacama Desert?

  • The millimetre and submillimetre waves observed by ALMA are very susceptible to atmospheric water vapour absorption on Earth.
  • The Atacama Desert is the driest place in the world, most of the nights here are clear of clouds and free of light-distorting moisture.
  • Most of the nights here are clear of clouds and free of light-distorting moisture making it a perfect location for examining the universe.

Notable Discoveries made by ALMA:

  • In 2013, it discovered starburst galaxies.
  • In 2015, the telescope helped scientists observe a phenomenon known as the Einstein ring, which occurs when light from a galaxy or star passes by a massive object en route to the Earth.
  • Recently, it provided the first image of the supermassive black hole at the centre of our own Milky Way galaxy.

Static Part to be referred: ALMA; Atacama Desert;

Exercise Desert Flag VIII

Theme: Defence & Security

Source: The Indian Express

Why in news: For the first time, India’s indigenously-made light combat aircraft Tejas will be participating in an international multilateral air exercise — Exercise Desert Flag VIll

Exercise Desert Flag VIII

About Exercise Desert Flag VIII:

  • Exercise Desert Flag is a multilateral air exercise which will see participation from the air forces of the UAE, France, Kuwait, Australia, the UK, Bahrain, Morocco, Spain, Republic of Korea, and the US.
  • The exercise is scheduled from 27 Feb 23 to 17 Mar 23.
  • The aim of the exercise is to participate in diverse fighter engagements and learn from the best practices of various Air Forces.
  • This is the first occasion when the LCA Tejas shall participate in an international flying exercise outside India.
  • It reflects India’s increasing efforts at showcasing the jet at the world stage.
  • India has been in talks with several countries to export LCA Tejas, including Argentina and Egypt.

Static Part to be referred: Exercise Desert Flag; LCA Tejas

​​Exercise Cobra Warrior

Theme: Defence & Security

Source: PIB

Why in news: An Indian Air Force contingent comprising 145 Air Warriors departed Air Force Station Jamnagar for participating in Exercise Cobra Warrior at the Waddington Air Force Base of the Royal Air Force in United Kingdom.

​​Exercise Cobra Warrior

About ​​Exercise Cobra Warrior

  • The Exercise Cobra Warrior is a multilateral Air exercise in which Air Forces from Finland, Sweden, South Africa, United States of America and Singapore would also be participating alongside the Royal Air Force and IAF.
  • The Cobalt Warrior is one of the largest Royal Air Force exercises.
  • During the exercise, the Royal Air Force provides special training to pilots from different countries.
  • The IAF is participating in the exercise this year with five Mirage 2000 fighters, two C-17 Globemaster III and an IL-78 mid air refueller aircraft.
  • The aim of the exercise is to participate in diverse fighter aircraft engagements and learn from the best practices of various Air Forces.

Other Exercise between India and UK:

  • Army exercise: AJEYA WARRIOR
  • Navy Exercise: KONKAN
  • Air Force Exercise: Indradhanush

Static Part to be referred: Exercise Cobra Warrior ; Other exercises between India and UK


Theme: Government policies and Interventions

Source: The Hindu

Why in news: Prime Minister Narendra Modi, in the 98th episode of his customary radio address Mann Ki Baat, said experiments such as eSanjeevani application had ensured medical services to people living in far-flung areas of the country.



  • An e-health initiative of the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • eSanjeevani is a national telemedicine service that strives to provide an alternative to the conventional physical consultations via digital platform.
  • It offers tele-consultations enabling patient to doctor consultations from the confines of their home, as well as doctor to doctor consultations.


Operating in two modes:

  1. eSanjeevani AB-HWC:
  • The doctor-to-doctor telemedicine platform
  • It is being implemented at all the Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) under Ayushman Bharat (AB) Scheme of Government of India.
  • It was rolled out in 2019 and endeavors to bridge rural-urban digital health divide by providing assisted teleconsultations.
  • It ensures that e-beneficiaries of Ayushman Bharat Scheme are able to avail of the benefitsthey are entitled to.
  • This vertical operates on a Hub-and-Spoke model wherein the AB-HWCs set up at state level, act as spokes, are mapped with the hub (comprising MBBS/ Specialty/Super-Specialty doctors) at zonal level

eSanjeevani OPD:

  • It caters to citizens in both rural and urban alike.
  • It leverages technology via smartphones, tablets, laptops enabling doctor consultations to be accessible from the patient’s residence regardless of location.

Static Part to be referred: eSanjeevani; AB-HWC; ABDHM

Santh Sevalal Maharaj

Theme: Important Personalities; Polity and Governance

Source: The Hindu

Why in news: For the first time ever, the year-long commemoration of the birth anniversary of  Santh Sevalal Maharaj, the Spiritual & Religious Leader of the Banjara Community is being celebrated by the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.

Santh Sevalal Maharaj

About Santh Sevalal Maharaj:

  • Santh Sevalal Maharaj was born in the Shivamogga district of Karnataka.
  • He is considered a social reformer and spiritual teacher of the Banjara community.
  • He travelled across the country with his Ladeniya Troup to serve especially the forest dwellers and nomadic tribes.
  • Due to his extraordinary knowledge, excellent skills and spiritual background in Ayurveda and Naturopathy, he was able to dispel and eradicate myths and superstitions prevalent in the tribal communities and brought about reforms in their way of life.

About Banjara Community:

  • Banjara is made of various groups found throughout India and most of them are found in Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in South India.
  • This community settled across the country with different names like Lambada or Lambadi in Andhra Pradesh, Lambani in Karnataka; Gwar or Gwaraiya in Rajasthan.
  • They have permanently abandoned their nomadic lifestyle and settled in their settlements called Tandas.
  • They speak Gor Boli also called Lambadi which belongs to the Indo-Aryan Group of Languages. Lambadi has no script.
  • Fire dance and Chari are the traditional dance forms of the banjara people.

Static Part to be referred: Santh Sevalal Maharaj; Banjara community;

Attukal Pongala

Theme: History & Culture

Source: The Hindu

Why in news: All arrangements are in place for the Attaukal Ponkala festival, considered one of the world’s largest religious gatherings of women.

Attukal Pongala

About Attukal Pongala:

  • It is a 10-day long festival celebrated annually at Attukal Bhagavathy Temple in Trivandrum, Kerala.
  • This festival is dedicated to Attukal Bhagavathy, also known as Goddess Kannaki or Bhadrakali.
  • The festival commences with the musical rendering of the story of the Goddess (Kannaki Charitam) during the “Kappu Kettu ceremony”.
  • It is celebrated every year and falls in the month of February or March.
  • It is one of the largest congregations of women for a festival in the world.
  • During the 10-days festivities, a sacrificial offering known as Kuruthitharpanam is also included in the religious event.

Static Part to be referred: Attukal Pongala


Theme: Environment & Biodiversity

Source: The Indian Express

Why in news: According to the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), India has recorded 30 tiger deaths within 2 months into 2023.


About NTCA

  • National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
  • It was established in 2006 under Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972.


  • Providing statutory authority to Project Tiger so that compliance of its directives becomes legal.
  • Fostering accountability of Center-State in management of Tiger Reserves by providing a basis for MoU with States within the federal structure.
  • Providing for an oversight by Parliament.
  • Addressing livelihood interests of local people in areas surrounding Tiger Reserves.

NTCA Members:

  • Minister in charge of MoEFCC (as Chairperson),
  • Minister of State in MoEFCC (as Vice-Chairperson),
  • Three members of Parliament, the Secretary (MoEFCC), and other members.

Static Part to be referred: NTCA; Project Tiger; Tiger

Clean Plant Centres

Theme: Government policies and Interventions

Source: The Indian Express

Why in news: With the demand for foreign planting materials of fruits like apple, avocado and blueberry rising over the years, the Centre plans to set up 10 ‘Clean Plant Centres’, to boost domestic production of the selected crops.

Clean Plant Centres

About Clean Plant Centres:

  • The Centre plans to set up 10 ‘Clean Plant Centres’ to boost domestic production of the selected crops.
  • These centers will be set up under the ‘Atmanirbhar Clean Plant Program’, which was announced in the Union Budget 2023-24.
  • The concept of Clean Plant Centres is unique and does not exist in India.
  • It is on the lines of those in developed countries such as the US, Netherlands and Israel
  • The 10 centres will be established for fruit crops like apple, walnut, almond, grapes, mango, pomegranate, among others in the next 7 years.

Services provided by the centres

  • Disease diagnostic
  • Therapeutics
  • Multiplying of plants
  • Generation of mother plants

Budget Outlay:

  • An overall budget of Rs 2,200 crore in the next seven years till 2030.
  • The centres will be fully funded by the Centre.


  • It will be implemented in a PPP mode in partnership with research organisations, agriculture universities and private sector partners
  • The National Horticulture Board (NHB) will anchor the clean plant programme.

Need for the programme:

  • It is very difficult to get disease-free and genuine planting materials for horticultural crops in India.
  • The process of importing plants is very cumbersome, as the imported plants must be kept in quarantine for two years.
  • After the establishment of the Clean Plant Centres, this period will be reduced to six months

Static Part to be referred: National Horticulture Board; Clean plant Centres; Atmanirbhar Clean Plant Program

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Shilpa is a professional web content writer and is in deep love with travelling. She completed her mass communication degree and is now dedicatedly playing with words to guide her readers to get the best for themselves. Developing educational content for UPSC, IELTS aspirants from breakthrough research work is her forte. Strongly driven by her zodiac sign Sagittarius, Shilpa loves to live her life on her own notes and completely agrees with the idea of ‘live and let live. Apart from writing and travelling, most of the time she can be seen in the avatar of 'hooman' mom to her pets and street dogs or else you can also catch her wearing the toque blanche and creating magic in the kitchen on weekends.

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