What is the geopolitical issue associated with caspian sea? UPSC aspirants must be knowing as it is a vital topic from the exam point of view. It falls under the category of world geography. Let’s explore what’s the geopolitical issue associated Caspian sea.

The Caspian Sea is the world’s largest inland water body. It is at the intersection of Europe and Asia, surrounded by Caucasus mountains to the west and the Steppes of Central Asia to the East.

Caspian Sea Border Countries

Russia borders the Caspian Sea in the northwest, Azerbaijan in the west, Iran in the south, Turkmenistan in the southeast, and Kazakhstan in the northeast. These countries are called Caspian Sea Countries because they surround the Caspian Sea.

What are the Geopolitical and Environmental Characteristics of Caspian Sea?

The Caspian Sea is the primary focal point for world geopolitical issues. The following points determine the strategic value of this sea:

#1 Oil factors play a crucial role in international relations. The region with abundant oil fields holds colossal strategic importance, as hydrocarbons are non-renewable forms of energy and unevenly distributed globally. The bordering countries tend to overexploit these resources without any environmental consideration.

#2 The Caspian Sea is situated between political and economic regions of the world such as Europe, the Middle East, South, and East Asia. The Caspian Sea provides the best land routes bridging these regions.

Also Read: What should be the Timetable/Strategy to Clear The IAS 2021-22 if I Start Studying Now?

What is the Geopolitical Issue Associated with Caspian Sea?

The primary issue with the Caspian sea is that it can be termed as lake and sea, both of which have caused political ambiguity over its status. The second major issue is the demarcation of political boundaries. Negotiations related to this issue are causing a rift among the Caspian sea bordering countries—Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Iran. Due to the debatable status of the Caspian Sea, access to various resources such as oil and natural gas and fishing has been a sensitive issue.

Caspian Sea Agreement – Things to Know for UPSC

The Caspian Sea agreed upon a breakthrough treaty on sovereign rights to the sea. The important pointers to remember from the topic Caspian Sea deal for UPSC preparation are as follows:

#1 It makes way for new oil and gas extraction pipelines. It ends the tiff over the Caspian Sea’s status, granting it a special legal status making it neither a sea nor a lake.

#2 The surface water is accessible for standard usage, meaning that all littoral states beyond territorial water can access the water.

#3 The sea bed, which is enriched with various natural resources, will be divided.

#4 It also eradicates the legal barrier of constructing a trans-Caspian gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to Europe.

#5 The new Caspian sea breakthrough treaty (UPSC aspirants take note) states that the development of seabed reserves will be balanced by separate deals between Caspian nations, in order with international law.

What’s the Status of the Caspian Sea?

Although it’s stated that the Caspian sea is neither a sea nor a lake, many people still get confused about its geographical state. It is considered a sea due to its size and saline water, but it also manifests several features of a lake. Most of the seas are partially enclosed by land, but the Caspian sea is entirely enclosed by land. Seas have saltwater. The Caspian Sea has salty water, which is diluted by freshwater, inflowing from the north. This ambiguity has raised various political ramifications.

How Important is World Geography for UPSC?

World geography holds significant importance in the civil services examination. It’s a part of the UPSC Mains and Prelims exam. This topic also consists of map-based questions. World geography can be quite baffling at the beginning, but it can be mastered with regular practice.

Tips to Prepare for UPSC

1. When to Start with Your Preparation?

The preparation time totally depends on the candidate’s personal preferences. However, most of the toppers devote at least a year. One year is enough for a comprehensive understanding of the topics.

2. What Optional Subject to Choose?

Optional subjects can make or break the preparation game for an aspirant. You might be very motivated and full of energy at the beginning of the preparation, but does it last if the subjects are not of your choice? It doesn’t, right? This makes it essential for you to choose the optional subjects that interest you and are scoring.

3. What should be Your Note-making Strategy?

A technique agreed by most toppers is writing practice. Remember how your school teachers used to advise you to memorise by writing the topics? The same technique goes for UPSC preparation. Writing strengthens your grasping powers, and you learn better. This even makes the revision of topics much easier. UPSC aspirants should make regular notes of current affairs from daily newspapers.

4. Which Source is Best for UPSC Preparation?

There is plenty of study material available over the internet and even books, but your primary source of preparation should always be NCERT.

5. What is the Best Source for Current Affairs Preparation?

If you are a civil services aspirant, then make the newspaper your holy grail. Almost all toppers recommend this strategy to crack the UPSC exam successfully. You can refer to The Hindu and The Indian Express.

6. How to Analyse if Your Preparation is Upto the Mark or Not?

Regular practice through previous years’ papers gives you a gist of the paper and makes your preparation solid. Solving mock tests from time to time helps analyse the strength and weaknesses in your preparation and you can align accordingly to improve. This would also boost up your self-confidence. Always time your mock tests to learn time management.

Also Read: UPSC 2021 Form Date: Everything You Must Know about the Upcoming UPSC Exam 2021


We hope this overview of the geopolitical issues associated with the Caspian Sea UPSC topic helps your preparation. This geopolitical issue has raised several political disputes among the bordering countries.  UPSC pathshala provides various blogs and articles that would help you as an aspirant to clear your doubts and prepare for this vital world geography topic. Do visit our website for more such UPSC-related content. Also, take our free demo class for a better understanding of any topic through personal mentorship. Who knows, this could be the beginning of your UPSC success story!

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Shilpa is a professional web content writer and is in deep love with travelling. She completed her mass communication degree and is now dedicatedly playing with words to guide her readers to get the best for themselves. Developing educational content for UPSC, IELTS aspirants from breakthrough research work is her forte. Strongly driven by her zodiac sign Sagittarius, Shilpa loves to live her life on her own notes and completely agrees with the idea of ‘live and let live. Apart from writing and travelling, most of the time she can be seen in the avatar of 'hooman' mom to her pets and street dogs or else you can also catch her wearing the toque blanche and creating magic in the kitchen on weekends.

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