The two countries, however, must change their policies because they are depending on each other in a variety of ways, and maintaining friendly relations will benefit both Russia and India. Aspirants can read the following article to learn more about India’s international relations with other countries.

In this article, we will go through the bilateral relationships between India and Russia, as well as their defence, political, trade, economic, and other relations. For candidates studying for the next IAS Exam, this is a crucial topic.

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India Russia Relations UPSC

The relationship between India and Russia has a long history. India-Russia ties have taken on a qualitatively new character since the signing of the “Declaration on the India-Russia Strategic Partnership” in October 2000, with increased levels of cooperation in almost every area of the bilateral relationship, including defence, politics, trade, security, and economy, science and technology, and culture.

However, in recent years, especially in the post-COVID era, ties have deteriorated dramatically. One of the main reasons for this is Russia’s tight ties with Pakistan and China, which have caused India numerous geopolitical problems in recent years.

UPSC Preparation Notes

Political Relations

The Annual Summit Meeting between India’s Prime Minister and Russia’s President is the highest level of institutionalised engagement in the strategic cooperation between the two countries. By 2020, 20 Annual Summit meetings will alternate between India and Russia.

During Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit in 2019, 14 MoUs were signed in the categories of trade and investment, defence cooperation, road transport, and oil and gas cooperation.

On May 21, 2018, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Prime Minister Narendra Modi held their first informal meeting in Sochi, Russia.

UPSC Notes

President Vladimir Putin signed an Executive Order giving Prime Minister Narendra Modi Russia’s highest state decoration, the Order of St Andrew the Apostle, on April 12, 2019. The order was given to PM for his outstanding contributions to the development of a special strategic relationship between Russia and India, as well as cordial relations between the Russian and Indian peoples.

Annual meetings of two Inter-Governmental Commissions, one on economic, scientific, trade, technological, and cultural cooperation (IRIGC-TEC) and the other on Military-Technical Cooperation (IRIGC-MTC), are held.

Defence Relations

Military-technical cooperation between Russia and India has progressed from a buyer-seller model to one that involves collaborative research, development, and manufacture of modern defence technologies and systems.

From October 19 to 29, 2017, Vladivostok hosted the first-ever Tri-Services exercise, dubbed “INDRA 2017.” In the attached article, you may learn more about INDRA, the joint military exercise between India and Russia

Indra Navy-2018, a bilateral Russian-Indian naval exercise, took place in the Bay of Bengal from December 13 to 16. From the 10th to the 19th of December 2019, India and Russia conducted a joint tri-services exercise called “INDRA 2019” at Pune, Babina, and Goa.

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Military Programs

India and Russia have several collaborative military programmes:

#BrahMos cruise missile programme

#5th generation fighter jet programme

#Sukhoi Su-30MKI programme

#Ilyushin/HAL Tactical Transport Aircraft

#KA-226T twin-engine utility helicopters

#Some frigates

Trade Relations

By 2025, the two countries want to expand bilateral investment to $50 billion and trade to $30 billion. Between January and September of this year, total bilateral trade between the two countries was USD 7.55 billion.

The percentage of trade between the two nations fell dramatically from the year 2013 to 2016. However, it began to rise from 2017 forward, and it continued to rise in 2018 and 2019. While trade in services reached USD 1095.4 million in the year 2017, it fell to USD 999 million in the year 2018. For January to June of this year, the total is USD 633.68 million.

Bilateral Relations

Politics, civil nuclear energy, trade, anti-terrorism cooperation, defence, and space are the six primary components of the Indo-Russian strategic alliance. India and the Soviet Union had strong strategic, military, economic, and diplomatic cooperation throughout the Cold War.

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited India’s close relationship, which resulted in the two countries sharing a Special Strategic Relationship.

The Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission (IRIGC) is the major organisation in charge of both countries’ governmental issues.


The two countries are participants in several international organisations and connectivity initiatives. This includes the following:

BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa)

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

The Russian defence industry’s second-largest market in India. Russia supplied around 68 per cent of the Indian military’s hardware imports in 2017, making it the country’s top defence supplier. In 2020, the Indian Defence Minister will travel to Russia to commemorate World War II Victory Day.


Hopefully, the above article gave you the important notes and points related to India Russia relations. Current events help students build analytical and logical thinking skills on several topics, including current social issues, economic issues, election reforms, and the country’s involvement in international relations, among others.

As a result, current events are an important part of preparing for the UPSC exam interview. Start reading newspapers every day and keep an eye on UPSC Pathshala’s daily articles to improve your skills. Best of luck with your UPSC exams.

Also Read: Russia Ukraine Conflict UPSC: Key Notes for Your Upcoming UPSC Exam

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