What is genome sequencing? This also known as complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing is the technique of determining the entirety, or almost the entirety, of an organism’s DNA sequence all at once.
Genetic data extraction has primarily been utilised for scientific purposes, although it was first employed in clinics in 2014. The technology of gene sequencing at the SNP level is also used to identify functional variations from association studies and increase the knowledge accessible to evolutionary biology researchers, which may build the groundwork for predicting disease susceptibility and treatment response.
How to Conduct Genome Sequencing?
We can conduct genetic data extraction by following this process:
#Almost any biological sample that has a complete copy of the DNA — even a very tiny amount of DNA or ancient DNA — can supply the genetic material required for whole-genome sequencing.
#Saliva, epithelial cells, bone marrow, hair (as long as it contains a hair follicle), seeds, plant leaves, and other samples may be used.
#Because current DNA sequencing technologies can only handle small sections of DNA at a time, the entire genome cannot be sequenced all at once.
#Scientists must disassemble the genome into little parts, sequence the fragments, and then reassemble them in the correct order to arrive at the full genome sequence.
#One technique, known as the “clone-by-clone” procedure, involves first dividing the genome into relatively big pieces.
#The alternative technique, known as the “genetic data extraction” method, entails dividing the genome into minute parts, sequencing the fragments, then reassembling the pieces into the entire genome sequence.
Advantages of Genome Sequencing
Whole genetic data extraction can produce the following advantages:
#It offers a high-resolution, base-by-base representation of the genome.
#Captures both big and small variations that focused methods may overlook.
#Identifies probable causal variations for future gene expression and regulatory research.
#Provides enormous amounts of data in a short period to aid in the construction of new genomes.
#A person’s genetic data extraction data may be analysed to see if they contain genes for certain single genetic diseases (caused due to mutation). This will pave the way for a new age of customised medicine.
Genome Sequencing Labs in India
The genetic data extraction labs in India have been developing at a rapid pace. At this moment we have ten new labs that have been inaugurated. This has hastened due to the rapid increase of the Covid 19.
According to hospital officials, Delhi’s first genetic data extraction facility was opened on Wednesday at Lok Nayak Hospital and will begin with sequencing 6-8 samples each week.
As part of Delhi’s preparations for a potential third Covid wave, Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal said last month that two genetic data extraction facilities were being established at Lok Nayak Hospital and the Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (ILBS).
Human Genome Project: UPSC Notes
Genetic data extraction is not a new concept.
#The Human Genome Effort is a publicly financed multinational collaborative research project that aims to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, as well as identify and map all of the human genome’s genes.
#A base pair (bp) is a unit made up of two nucleobases that are joined together by hydrogen bonds.
#They serve as the foundation for the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded shape of both DNA and RNA.
#The Human Genome Project was initially begun in 1990 and completed in 2003.
The sequencing of several variants of each gene is required for the mapping of the human genome.
#According to the HGP, there are approximately 20,500 human genes.
#Comprehend illnesses, including the genotyping of specific viruses to direct suitable therapy, in the discovery of mutations associated with certain types of cancer.
#Comprehend drug design and more precise prediction of their effects, in the progress of forensic applied sciences, biofuels, animal husbandry, and so on.
Genome India Project
Science and Technology is an important topic for the UPSC Prelims examination. The genetic data extraction project is an important topic for your UPSC preparation. This has been in the news recently due to the ongoing developments made in this field.
#The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) launched the ambitious Genome India Project (GIP) in 2020, drawing inspiration from the Human Genome Project.
#It intends to collect 10,000 genetic samples from Indian residents to create a reference genome.
#The Gene Mapping initiative comprises 20 prominent universities in the country, including the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore’s Centre for Brain Research.
Goals of this Project
Genetic data extraction and subsequent data analysis of these 10,000 individuals’ genetic data would be carried out.
Its goal is to improve understanding of the nature of illnesses that afflict the Indian people.
It enables India to draw on its vast genetic variety, as a result of a series of massive migrations in the past, and so contribute significantly to current knowledge about the human species.
This effort would help create the groundwork for customised healthcare for a huge number of people in the world.
The goals of the Genetic data extraction project in India are:
The six-month-long project of completing a “whole-genome sequencing” of 1,008 Indians of various ethnicities was completed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
The initiative is part of the “IndiGen” programme and serves as a forerunner to the “Genome India Project” (GIP).
The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad and the CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology were both participating in the study (IGIB).
What are the Priority Areas?
Genome sequencing in India has been picking pace. Over the years some of the priority areas changed to:
#Disorders of rare genetic origin
#In the Indian population, there is a mutation spectrum of genetic and complicated illnesses.
#Multifactorial Lifestyle Disease Genetic Epidemiology
#Translational research is a term used to describe research that is carried out
Challenges Involved in this Project
Every new scientific discovery comes with its own set of challenges. Genetic data extraction is the same. Let’s look at some of its challenges.
#Fear of Scientific Racism: The subject of heredity and racial purity has preoccupied civilisations for millennia, and greater scientific studies of genes and classification of them might reinforce prejudices and allow politics and history to take on a racial slant.
#Data and Storage: Following the collecting of the sample, the anonymity of the data, as well as issues about its potential use and misuse, would need to be addressed.
India has yet to adopt a Data Privacy Bill with sufficient safeguards, and releasing the GIP before the privacy issue is resolved might create new issues.
#Medical Ethics: In a project whose sole goal is to establish a database of genetic information, there is a possibility that doctors would secretly undertake gene editing.
Selective breeding, often known as Eugenics, has long been contentious, as a Shenzhen-based scientist who developed the world’s first gene-edited infants was recently sentenced to three years in prison.
We hope that this article has highlighted to you the meaning of Human Genome Sequencing and its underlying pros and cons. The Human Genome Project was the first international project that brought genome sequencing into the limelight. Following their success, countries like India have also ventured into the same.
Science and Technology is an important topic for the UPSC preparation. Every year a considerable number of questions are asked in the preliminary examination from this section. To ace this examination, it is best you start preparing early.UPSC Pathshala is here to support you in your journey to success.