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Correct Option is Both 1 and 2

Sallekhana, also known as samlehna, santhara, samadhi-marana or sanyasana-marana, is a supplementary vow to the ethical code of conduct of Jainism. It is the religious practice of voluntarily fasting to death by gradually reducing the intake of food and liquids. The Sabarimala judgement brought back into light a very disputed and controversial part of the jurisprudence-the essential religious practice test. The doctrine has developed in three judgments of the Supreme Court. The Doctrine was originally conceived in The Commissioner, Hindu Religious Endowments, Madras v. Shri Lakshmindar Thirtha Swamiyar of Shri Shirur Mutt[i]or popularly known as The Shirur Matt case. In Sri Venkataramana Devaru v. State of Mysore[ii], the Court laid down a crucial precedent which marked a shift in judicial approach wherein the Court’s role became determinative in determining whether a practice qualified as essential. Thus, the test of determining what is ‘essentially religious’ (as distinct from the secular) became conflated with ‘essential to religion.’ In Dargah Committee, Ajmer v.Syed Hussain Ali[iii], the Court stated that a distinction had to be drawn between practices essential and integral to a religion vis-à-vis practices though religious but which have sprung from merely superstitious beliefs. Thus, the protection of Art.25 and Art.26 was confined to only such religious practices which were essential and integral to the religion in the light of the aforesaid formulations. Sixty-four years later, this doctrine was again addressed in The Indian Young Lawyers Association &Ors. v. the State of Kerala and Ors[iv]by the Supreme Court.

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