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Answer

Correct Option is 1, 2 and 3

Ravines in India are a geological feature formed millions of years ago when the peninsular plate pressed against the Himalayas. Almost all of India’s ravines are found in the vicinity of the Vindhyas, with over 60 per cent being in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan, as per the National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad. However, ravines get aggravated by soil erosion, mostly caused by a flowing waterbody. The adjacent land gets eroded to form narrow depressions with sharp slopes. Over time, ravines widen, rendering land uncultivable and infertile with the erosion of the topsoil.

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