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Correct Option is 1 and 2

Defection has been defined as abandoning a position or association, often to join an opposing group. The anti-defection law was enacted to ensure that a party member does not violate the mandate of the party and in case he does so, he will lose his membership of the House. The law applies to both Parliament and state assemblies. Criticism of the anti-defection law 1. Its distinction between individual defection and group defection is irrational. 2. It does not make a differentiation between dissent and defection. It curbs the legislator’s right to dissent and freedom of conscience. 3. It does not provide for the expulsion of a legislator from his party for his activities outside the legislature 4. It discriminates between an independent member and a nominated member. If the former joins a party, he is disqualified while the latter is allowed to do the same. Hence statements 1 and 2 are incorrect and statement 3 is correct.

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