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A caldera is a large depression formed when a volcano erupts and collapses. During a volcanic eruption, magma present in the magma chamber underneath the volcano is expelled, often forcefully. When the magma chamber empties, the support that the magma had provided inside the chamber disappears. As a result, the sides and top of the volcano collapse inward. Calderas vary in size from one to 100 kilometers (0.62 to 62 miles) in diameter. Some calderas form a lake as the bowl-shaped depression fills with water. A famous example is Crater Lake, in Oregon. This caldera formed about 7,000 years ago when a strato volcano, Mt. Mazama, violently erupted. For several thousand years after this eruption, smaller volcanic eruptions continued inside the caldera. One of these eruptions was so large it formed an island in Crater Lake named Wizard Island.

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