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Answer

Correct Option is Both 1 and 2

Dissolution When the term, “Dissolution of Parliament” is used, it only means the Lok Sabha, the House of the People, the Lower House of Parliament. The Parliament comprises the President, Lok Sabha, and Rajya Sabha, the Council of States, the Upper House. The first and third have fixed terms of five and six years respectively, the Lok Sabha has a term of five years but can be dissolved earlier. There are two ways in which the Lok Sabha can be dissolved. First, when the leader of the majority (the ruling party) dissolves the Lok Sabha. While in this situation, the prerogative and timing is that of the leader of the majority, he has to dissolve the Lok Sabha if his five-year term is up. Second, when the leader of the majority, also known as the Treasury benches loses his majority in the Lok Sabha. Hence both the statements are correct. Then, the prerogative passes to the President, who can ask another leader to prove his majority in the Lok Sabha or dissolve the Lok Sabha, and call for elections. After the Lok Sabha is dissolved, elections are held to constitute the next Lok Sabha. The prerogative of announcing the dates and conducting the elections belongs to the Election Commission.

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