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Correct Option is Both 1 and 2

An example of the application of basic structure is the SR Bommai case (1994). SR Bommai Case Significance This case ended the practice of arbitrarily dismissing the state government by the central government. Earlier, political parties used this mechanism given in the Constitution to get political mileage and settle scores with opposition parties. The Bommai verdict restricted this practice to a large extent. The verdict also stated in no uncertain terms that the test of the majority of the government should be done on the floor of the Assembly and is not subject to the Governor’s opinion. In this case, there was no question of a constitutional amendment but even so, the concept of basic doctrine was applied. The Supreme Court held that policies of a state government directed against an element of the basic structure of the Constitution would be a valid ground for the exercise of the central power under Article 356.

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