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Answer

Correct Option is Both 1 and 2

Tribunals are not originally a part of the Constitution of India. They were introduced in 1985. Tribunals were constituted with the objective of delivering speedy, inexpensive, and decentralized adjudication of disputes in various matters. Tribunals are created to avoid regular courts’ route for dispensation of disputes. Article 323 A 1. Tribunals under it can be established only by Parliament. 2. It contemplates the establishment of tribunals for public service matters only. 3. Only one tribunal for the Centre and one for each state or two or more states may be established. There is no question of the hierarchy of tribunals. Article 323 B 1. Tribunals under it can be established both by the Parliament and the state legislatures with respect to matters falling within their legislative competence 2. It contemplates the establishment of tribunals for certain other matters. It created a hierarchy of tribunals. Hence both statements are correct.

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