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the 86th Amendment Act of 2002 changed the subject matter of Article 45 and made elementary education a fundamental right under Article 21 A. The the amended directive requires the State to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years. The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added four new Directive Principles to the original list 1. To secure opportunities for the healthy development of children (Article 39) 2. To protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife (Article 48 A) 3. The 97th Amendment Act of 2011 added a new Directive Principle relating to co-operative societies. It requires the state to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies (Article 43B).

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