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Correct Option is All of the above

Defection has been defined as abandoning a position or association, often to join an opposing group. The 52nd Amendment Act of 1985 provided for the disqualification of the members of Parliament and the state legislatures on the ground of defection from one political party to another. It made changes to the Constitution and added a new Schedule (the Tenth Schedule) to the Constitution. This act is referred to as the ‘anti-defection law’. Parliament(Lok Sabha and Rajya sabha) and the state legislature(legislative assembly and legislative council). Any question regarding disqualification arising out of defection is to be decided by the presiding officer of the House. Hence all statements are correct.

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