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Answer

Correct Option is Both 1 and 2

Article 16 provides for equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters of employment or appointment to any office under the State. There are three exceptions to this general rule of equality of opportunity in public employment: 1. Parliament can prescribe residence as a condition for certain employment or appointment in a state or union territory or local authority or any authority. As the Public Employment (Requirement as to Residence) Act of 1957 expired in 1974, there is no such provision for any state except Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. 2. The State can provide for reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class that is not adequately represented in the state services. 3. Law can provide that the incumbent of an office related to the religious or denominational institution or a member of its governing body should belong to the particular religion or denomination. Hence both statements are correct.

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