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Answer

Correct Option is All of the above

The Supreme Court is yet to define or clarify as to what constitutes the ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution. From the various judgements, there have emerged basic features of the Constitution. Some of them are 1.The supremacy of the Constitution 2.Federal character of the Constitution 3.Independence of Judiciary 4.Welfare state (socio-economic justice) 5.Judicial review 6.Freedom and dignity of the individual 7.Parliamentary system 8.Rule of law 9.Effective access to justice 10. Principles (or essence) underlying fundamental rights 11. Powers of the Supreme Court under Articles 32, 136, 141 and 142 12. Powers of the High Courts under Articles 226 and 227 Hence Option (d) is correct.

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