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Correct Option is Only (a) and (b)

Solution:Among the given options, only (a) and (b) are correct with reference to the information provided in the given passage. While statement (c) is incorrect as the judges to the High Courts are nominated by the President. Hence, option (d) is the right answer choice.
For statement (a): Refer to the last line of the first paragraph, “Today, even without express constitutional sanction, the collegium effectively exercises a power of supervision over each of the High Courts.”
For statement (b): Refer to the first line of the third paragraph, “Separation of powers is a bedrock principle of Indian constitutionalism.”

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