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Answer

Correct Option is 1, 2 and 3

The Constitutional Bench in Kesavananda Bharati case ruled by a 7-6 verdict that Parliament could amend any part of the Constitution so long as it did not alter or amend the basic structure or essential features of the Constitution. However, the court did not define the term ‘basic structure’ and listed a few provisions like Supremacy of the Constitution Unity and sovereignty of India A democratic and republican form of government Federal character of the Constitution Secular character of the Constitution Separation of power Individual freedom as a basic feature. Over time, many other features have also been added to this list of basic structural features. Some of them are: Rule of law Judicial review Parliamentary system Rule of equality Harmony and balance between the Fundamental Rights and DPSP Free and fair elections Limited power of the parliament to amend the Constitution Power of the Supreme Court under Articles 32, 136, 142 and 147 Power of the High Court under Articles 226 and 227

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