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Vast plantations of eucalyptus, wattle (acacia) and pinus can be seen across the upper slopes of the Nilgiris and Pulney hills. Most species, such as eucalyptus, wattle (acacia), introduced from Australia, have become highly invasive. Invasive plant species transform the soil structure and micro environment to their advantage by producing allelochemicals, which cause the destruction of native species and local biodiversity. Allelochemical is produced by a living organism that exerts a detrimental physiological effect on individuals of another species when released into environment. For example: Black walnuts produce allelochemical called Juglone, which adversely affects plants like tomato, pepper, potato etc. Water hyacinth was introduced in India from South America.

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