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Answer

Correct Option is Both 1 and 2

1. The Mappilas were the Muslim tenants inhabiting the Malabar region, where most of the landlords were Hindus. The Mappilas had expressed their resentment against the oppression by the landlords during the nineteenth century also. Thus, it was a class struggle. However, what began as an anti-government and anti-landlord affair acquired communal overtones. The communalisation of the rebellion completed the isolation of the Mappilas from the Khilafat-Non-Cooperation Movement. By December 1921, all resistance had come to a stop. 2. Their grievances centred around the lack of security of tenure, high rents, renewal fees and other oppressive exactions. 3. Soon, the Mappila movement merged with the ongoing Khilafat agitation. The leaders of the Khilafat-Non-Cooperation- Movement, like Gandhi, Shaukat Ali and Maulana Azad addressed Mappila meetings. 4. The Indian National Congress did not take active part to calm down the communal violence.

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