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The Khilafat Movement had started in 1919 in India in support of the restoration of the caliphate in Turkey. The Indian National Congress (INC) was aligned with it. The Khilafat meetings in Malabar incited communal feelings among the Moplahs and it became a movement directed against the British as well as the Hindu landlords of Malabar. There was large-scale violence which saw systematic persecution of Hindus and British officials. Many homes and temples were destroyed. The prominent leaders of the rebellion were Ali Musaliyar and Variyankunnath Kunjahammed Haji. From August 1921 till about the end of the year, the rebels had under their control large parts of Malabar. By the end of the year, the rebellion was crushed by the British who had raised a special battalion, the Malabar Special Force for the riot. In November 1921, 67 Moplah prisoners were killed when they were being transported in a closed freight wagon from Tirur to the Central Prison in Podanur. They died of suffocation. This event is called the Wagon Tragedy. Assessment of the Moplah Rebellion Consequences of Moplah Rebellion The Moplah Rebellion is considered is often considered as one of the first cases of nationalist uprisings in Southern India. However, it is widely debated as a few experts mention the Moplah revolt to have a communal touch. Some say that it has to be considered as the struggle against British supremacy while some mention that it culminated in an Anti-Hindu movement.

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