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Correct Option is Both 1 and 2

Recently, Christie’s auctioned a stone head of pharaoh Tutakhamen, amid protests by Egyptian authorities and activists. At the heart of the controversy around the sale, which fetched $ 6 million, is the question of ‘provenance’. In matters of antiques, the word means “the record of the ownership of a movable work of art”. When provenance is unclear, museums and institutions of repute do not usually deal with such works of art. Over 100 countries are signatories to the UNESCO 1970 convention on the means of prohibiting and preventing the illicit, export ad transport of ownership of cultural property. For evidence of provenance, UNESCO relies on INTERPOL database of stole objects and national inventories. When an object is not listed, establishing its provenance becomes problematic. In this case, Egyptian officials have alleged that the pharaoh’s head was stole, while christie’s has asserted that it can date its provenance to a time before the UNESCO convention came into effect. Egypt believes that the head had been illegally exported in 1970 – the year UNESCO instituted the convention.

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