On 5th February 1922, individuals who participated in the Non-cooperation movement clashed with police that resulted in the deaths of 22 policemen and 3 civilians at Chauri Chaura village in the Gorakhpur district of United Provinces (present-day Uttar Pradesh).
You will get to know the important dates of the incident, timeline, and important points from the Chauri Chaura Incident which will help you prepare for the IAS exam.
The Chauri Chaura incident is an important event in the history of the Indian freedom struggle. Thus, it is an important part of UPSC Preparation.
The Chauri Chaura incident and then Mahatma Gandhi’s reaction gives us an insight into the workings of Gandhi’s mind and how he used to think. So, aspirants planning to appear in the UPSC exam must be well versed with this incident since it is asked frequently in the UPSC mains and prelims exam.
Things to Keep In Mind?
Aspirants preparing for the IAS exam need to keep these points about the Chauri Chaura incident to score better in the IAS exam:
#Chauri – Chaura Incident Date
#What happened before the Chauri Chaura incident?
#Where is Chauri Chaura located?
#What was the social or political aftermath?
#What major event is related to this?
#Who is Bhagwan Ahir concerning the incident?
#What are the other interpretations?
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Chauri Chaura Incident Timeline
Aspirants often wonder how to remember? Or what you need to know? About particular events related to UPSC. Below is an easy way to remember the Chauri Chaura Incident for UPSC preparation.
What preceded the Chauri – Chaura Incident?
#The Non – Cooperation movement was launched under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi by the Indian National Congress on 1st August 1920.
#This was supposed to be a non-violent and peaceful movement wherein people would resign from their government titles and jobs, not serve in the army, stop going to government schools and colleges, and also refuse to pay taxes.
#The aim of the Congress was to explain the importance of Swaraj or self-government to people.
#The public readily participated in the movement and it was seen as a partial success at least for the popularity it gained.
#However, an incident at Chauri Chaura not only changed the course of the movement but also the Indian Freedom Struggle.
What is the Chauri Chaura Incident?
#On 2 February 1922, people were protesting against high prices at the marketplace in a non-violent manner. They were beaten brutally by the police and many of their leaders were arrested and kept at the Chauri Chaura police station, a village in Uttar Pradesh.
#The volunteers of the non-cooperation movement planned another protest against the police for their brutal actions.
#On 5 February, about 2500 individuals marched towards the Chauri Chaura market in order to protest against a shop selling liquor.
Some more Detail
#One of their leaders of the protesters was arrested. After this action by the police, a group of individuals marched towards the police station demanding the release of the leader that was arrested.
#The police fired shots in the air in hope that the crowd would disperse. However, the crowd became agitated and started pelting stones at the police.
#Things got out of hand pretty quickly and the sub-inspector at the station came forward and fired shots at the crowd killing three people. This enraged the crowd who then charged at the policemen. The policemen were heavily outnumbered. The police station was set ablaze by the crowd and the policemen and officials inside were burned to death.
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What was the Aftermath?
- The British government in response to this incident, imposed martial law in the area and arrested hundreds of people.
- Gandhi went on a fast which lasted five days after the incident for the role he played in the event. He withdrew the movement on 12 February officially since he felt that the people were keener on following the violent path rather than the nonviolent. He also felt that adequate training was not provided to the public to show restraint in the face of violent and severe attacks.
- Many Congress leaders like Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das were against the calling off of the non-cooperation movement as they felt that this will be a success and Chauri Chaura was just a setback.
- The government responded by bringing to trial 228 people in connection with the Chauri Chaura incident. 6 of them died in police custody and after an 8 month-long trial, 172 people were sentenced to death.
- The verdict was met with severe criticism and resistance across the country. In 1923, the Allahabad High Court reviewed the sentences, confirmed 19 death sentences, 110 life imprisonments, and the remaining were sentenced to long terms in jail.
Memorials Dedicated to the Martyrs
#The British government dedicated a memorial to the dead policemen in 1923. ‘Jai Hind’ and the verse ‘Shaheedon ki chitaaon par lagenge har baras mele’ by revolutionary poet Ram Prasad Bismil were added to the memorial post-independence.
#An association named ‘Chauri Chaura Shaheed Smarak Samiti’ was formed in 1971 by the people of the district. In 1973, a 12.2 metres high minaret was constructed by the association near the lake at Chauri Chaura.
#The Government of India built a Shaheed Smarak to honour the martyrs hanged by the British authorities. The names of those who were executed were engraved upon it. A library and museum have also been set up near the memorial to know more about the Indian Freedom Struggle.
#Chauri Chaura Express was started by the Indian Government, which runs from Gorakhpur to Kanpur as a tribute to those individuals who were executed by the British Government.
What are The Other Interpretations of the Incident?
A mass wave of revolutionary unrest was brewing in India during the 1919s and 1920s, which can also be seen from the labour strike and peasant protests in Bihar and UP during the same time. This led Mahatma Gandhi and other Congress leaders to believe that a revolutionary mass movement was approaching. They decided to lead the movement to keep it a non – violent affair, but they called off the movement just when the public was taking initiative.
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Chauri – Chaura has emerged as one of the most talked-about topics in the UPSC exams as it covers a spectrum of issues related to the Indian Freedom Struggle and Non-Cooperation movement. A lot of questions are asked about whether the decisions of various movement leaders were correct according to the situation? or more could be done to prevent the death sentence of the protesters? Chauri Chaura is considered one of the most significant moments of the Non-Cooperation Movement hence you should go through it thoroughly.
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This was a tremendous read! Thank you!
I just have a question. In “the Other Interpretations of the Incident,” you mention how Mahatma Gandhi and the ones in charge of the Non-Cooperation Movement called it off when the public was taking initiative.
Why do you think is that?