What causes Pneumococcal disease? The answer is Bacteria. It has the potential to cause infections in the airways, blood, and brains. The pneumococcal illness causes health issues in children under the age of five. Pneumonia, blood infections, and ear infections are all examples of this. Children under the age of two, individuals over the age of 65, persons with specific medical problems, and heavy smokers are at the highest risk of infection. The vaccination protects both toddlers and adults against illness.

Read on to learn about the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine UPSC topic in more detail.

What is a Conjugate Vaccine? How Does It Work?

The PCV vaccine used in the United Kingdom protects against 13 different kinds of pneumococcal bacteria, all of which cause pneumococcal illness. Pneumococcal bacteria come in over 90 distinct varieties, and they can cause a variety of issues, including hearing loss and pneumonia (serious chest infections). Meningitis and septicemia are both life-threatening complications of pneumococcal illness (blood poisoning). Vaccines have been developed to defend against the most common forms of illness.

The PCV can be administered safely alongside other vaccinations on the schedule. For older individuals, there is a comparable vaccination (the Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine). There are no live germs in the vaccination, therefore it cannot cause pneumococcal illness.

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Why Get Vaccinated?

Both adults and children can be protected from pneumococcal illness with pneumococcal immunisation. Pneumococcal illness is caused by germs that can be transmitted from one person to another by close contact. It can result in ear infections as well as more severe infections of the:

# Lungs (pneumonia)

# Blood (bacteremia)

# Brain and spinal cord covering (meningitis)

Adults are the most commonly infected with pneumococcal pneumonia. Pneumococcal meningitis can cause hearing and brain damage, and around one out of every ten children who contract it dies.

Pneumococcal illness can affect anybody, although it is more common in kids under the age of two, individuals 65 and older, persons with specific medical problems, and cigarette smokers.

Pneumococcal Infections in the USA

It caused problems in the children who were below 5 years of age:

# 700 + cases of meningitis

# Nearly 13,000 blood infections

# Nearly 5 million ear infections

# Nearly 200 deaths

Severe pneumococcal illness has decreased by 88 percent in these youngsters after the vaccination became available.

In the United States, over 18,000 older individuals die each year from pneumococcal illness.

Because certain strains of pneumococcal infections are immune to penicillin and other medicines, treatment with these treatments is no longer as successful as it once was. This emphasises the need for vaccination as a preventative measure.

Who Should Not Get the PCV13 Vaccine?

PCV13 should not be given to anybody who has ever had a life-threatening adverse response to a dose of this vaccine, a previous pneumococcal vaccination known as PCV7 (or Prevnar), or any vaccine comprising diphtheria toxoid (such as DTaP).

PCV13 should not be given to anyone who has a serious allergy to any of the vaccine’s components. If the individual getting vaccinated has any significant allergies, talk to your doctor.

If the individual who is supposed to be vaccinated is sick, your healthcare practitioner may opt to reschedule the vaccine.

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What are The Risks of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine?

There is a risk of adverse effects with every treatment, including vaccinations. These are typically minor and go away on their own, but they can potentially be dangerous.

The severity of problems described as a result of PCV13 varied depending on the patient’s age and dose in the study. The following were the most commonly reported issues among children:

# After the dose, about half of the people got sleepy, had a brief lack of appetite, or experienced redness or soreness where the shot was injected.

# One out of every three people developed swelling where the injection was injected.

# A moderate fever affected around one out of every three people, whereas a severe fever (above 102.2°F [39°C]) affected about one out of every twenty.

# Up to 8 out of 10 got irritated or fussy.

Problems After The Vaccine Dose

Adults have complained of discomfort, redness, and swelling around the injection site, as well as moderate fever, tiredness, headache, chills, or muscular pain.

Young kids who get PCV13 and the inactivated flu vaccination at the same time may be more susceptible to fever-induced seizures.

The following problems may arise with the injection of any vaccine:

Problem 1

A medical treatment, such as vaccination, might cause someone to pass out. Sitting or laying down for 15 minutes can help avoid fainting and fall-related injuries. If you have dizziness, visual problems, or buzzing in your ears, contact your doctor.

Problem 2

Some grownups and older children experience significant shoulder discomfort and trouble moving the arm where the injection was administered. This is an uncommon occurrence.

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Problem 3

A serious allergic response to any drug is possible. Such vaccine responses are extremely uncommon, predicted to occur once in a million doses, and would occur within minutes to hours of the immunisation.

A vaccination, like any other drug, has a very tiny possibility of causing significant damage or death. Vaccine safety is always being checked. Check this for additional information.

The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program

The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program or VICP was established to compensate individuals who have been damaged by specific vaccinations. Call 1-800-338-2382 or visit to learn more about the programme and how to file a claim if you feel you have been harmed by a vaccine. There is a deadline for filing a compensation claim.

Is Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Safe?

When given with meningococcal A vaccine as part of regular vaccination, typhoid conjugate vaccine is effective and safe in kids.

The results were analyzed at the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases’ 2020 Virtual Annual Conference on Vaccinology Research.

Importance of Vaccination for Adults 65 +

It is really essential. If you are over the age of 65 or have an underlying medical condition that increases risk, speak to a doctor about getting a pneumococcal vaccine. As per the National Foundation for Infectious Disease, the aggressive pneumococcal disease causes bacteremia and meningitis, which are the leading causes of death among the aged and individuals with underlying medical problems. Getting the pneumococcal vaccination for yourself and your kids can save lives.


And, this we are winding up the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine UPSC topic. If you have any further questions regarding this topic or any other UPSC topic, feel free to leave a comment in the comment section below.

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About the Author

Madhurjya Chowdhury

Madhurjya Chowdhury, a web content writer in Ufaber EduTech has a very strong passion for writing and alluring the readers. You can find him writing articles for the betterment of exam aspirants and children. With immense interest in research-based content writing and copywriting, he likes to reach out to more and more people with his creative writing style. On the other side, he is an Electronics and Communication Engineer from LPU, Jalandhar. In his leisure time, he likes to play badminton or read about space discoveries. Apart from this, he is a pro gamer on PC, PS and Mobile gaming platforms.

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