Different Types of Pressure Groups in India: Explanation of Types of Pressure Groups with Examples
Pressure groups have become a very important part of an administrative system. These groups try to pressurize the administrative and political system of a country either to ensure that their interests are promoted or to see that at least their interests are not relegated to the background. No system can function effectively without taking their views into consideration.
In developing countries like India where there is a scarcity of various resources on the one hand and acute poverty and deprivation on the other, the pressure on the administrative system is bound to be very heavy. The pressure groups arise in different forms in different walks of life. They provide a stabilizing mechanism and form a crucial component of the structural equilibrium which means that they perform the system maintenance function.
Different Types of Pressure Groups in India
A large number of pressure groups exist in India but unfortunately, they are not developed as compared to the Western Countries like England, France, and the USA. It can be classified into the following categories. Let’s explain types of pressure groups, what type of pressure group is stop the war, which type of associations are pressure groups, examples of pressure groups, interest groups in India, etc.
The Business group is one of the most important, influential, and organized pressure groups in India. Examples of business groups- Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), Associated Chamber of Commerce (ASSOCHAM) – major constituents are the Bengal Chamber of Commerce Calcutta and Central commercial organization of Delhi.
Trade unions cater to the demand of workers and labourers of the industries. Alternatively, they are also known as labour groups. In India, different trade unions represent different political parties. Examples- The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC), All India Trade Union Congress (Communist Party of India)
These groups represent the farmer community of India and work for their well-being. Example- Bhartiya Kisan Sangh, Hind Kisan Panchayat (control of socialist).
Such association, raise the concern of working professionally in India ranging from lawyers and doctors, journalists, and teachers. Examples include the Association of Engineers, Bar Council of India (BCI), and Dental Council of India.
There are various organizations present to represent the causes and grievances of students in India. Examples are the National Students Union of India (Congress), All Assam Students Union (Asom Gan Parishad), Chhatra Yuva Sangharsh Samiti (Aam Admi Party).
The organizations based on religion have come to play an important role in Indian Politics. They represent the narrow perspective and are often termed as anti-secular. Examples of these organizations are Rashtriya Swyam Sevak Sangh, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Brahmo Samaj.
Caste has been one of the salient features of Indian Society. However, it has always been one of the ideologies discouraging the aspiration of the people and the constitution of India. The caste factor is always prevalent in elections of India. Examples of caste groups are Marwari Association, Harijan Sewak Sangh.
Tribal in India are prominent in Central India and North East India and are also active in the Central Indian Tribal belt and in northeast India. These organizations include the National Socialist Council of Nagaland, All-India Jharkhand, and Tribal Sangh of Assam
There are 22 scheduled languages in India. However, there have been many groups and movements working for the welfare of languages in India. For example- Hindi Sahitya Sammelan and Tamil Sangh, etc.
Ideology Based Group
Ideology based groups have been recently formed. Some examples of these groups include Environment Protection Groups like Narmada Bachao Andolan and Chipko movement, Democratic rights organization, Gandhi Peace Foundation, Woman rights organization, Civil liberties associations.
Anomic pressure groups refer to those spontaneous groups which are formed with a collective response through riots, demonstrations, assassinations, etc. The Indian government and bureaucratic elite overwhelmed by the problem of economic development and scarcity of resources available to them, inevitably acquires a technocratic and anti-political frame of mind, particularistic demands of whatever kinds are denied legitimacy. As a consequence, pressure groups are alienated from the political system. Some of the anomic pressure groups are- Naxalite groups, United Liberation Front of Assam, All Assam Student’s Union, Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front.
Pressure groups are a vital link between the government and the governed. They keep governments more responsive to the wishes of the community, especially in between elections. They are different from the political parties in that they neither contest elections nor try to capture political power but their activism influence public policy. These groups promote a specific issue and raise it up the political agenda or may have more general political and ideological objectives in mind while campaigning.